Mounting studies have demonstrated that coffee consumption significantly reduces the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there have been few investigations about the role of chronic coffee consumption in nigrostriatal structural neurodegeneration in PD. We aimed to investigate whether chronic coffee consumption is associated with the change in striatal volume in PD.
In this study, 130 de novo patients with PD and 69 healthy controls were enrolled from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative cohort. Patients with PD and healthy controls were, respectively, divided into three subgroups, including current, ever, and never coffee consumers. Then, striatal volume was compared across the three subgroups. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between cups consumed per day and striatal volume. Furthermore, we included the factors that may have influenced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in multiple linear regression analyses to identify significant contributing factors to striatal volume in each investigated striatal region.
Current coffee consumers had decreased striatal volume compared with ever consumers in controls but not patients with PD. Furthermore, the correlation analyses revealed that cups per day were negatively correlated with striatal volume in current consumers of patients with PD and controls. In addition, multiple linear regression analyses showed that current coffee consumption remained as an independent predictor of a decrease in striatal volume in controls.
Our study showed that chronic coffee consumption was negatively correlated with striatal volume. In addition, our study showed that chronic coffee consumption was associated with the change in striatal volume in current-rather than ever coffee consumers, which suggests that the chronic effects of caffeine on striatal morphology may fade and even compensate after quitting coffee. Our study provides evidence for the effect of chronic coffee consumption on striatal volume in human brain in vivo.