Caffeine is the most consumed psychostimulant worldwide. Its use among children is controversial. Although it produces an increase in brain activity, it could hamper growth and development in young consumers. Therefore, the aim of this review was to recognize changes produced by caffeine in children under 12 years of age and to identify the relevant alterations and the conditions of their occurrence. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using PRISMA. Initially, 5468 articles were found from the EBSCO, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Clarivate Analytics databases. In this review, were retained 24 published articles that met the inclusion criteria. The results obtained showed that caffeine consumption hampers children’s growth and development. In contrast, it supports the activation of the central nervous system and brain energy management.