The performance-enhancing potential of acute caffeine consumption is firmly established with benefits for many aspects of physical performance and cognitive function summarised in a number of meta-analyses. Despite this, there remains near exponential growth in research articles examining the ergogenic effects of caffeine. Many such studies are confirmatory of well-established ideas, and with a wealth of convincing evidence available, the value of further investigation may be questioned. However, several important knowledge gaps remain. As such, the purpose of this review is to summarise key knowledge gaps regarding the current understanding of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine and justify their value for future investigation. The review will provide a particular focus on ten research priorities that will aid in the translation of caffeine's ergogenic potential to real-world sporting scenarios. The discussion presented here is therefore essential in guiding the design of future work that will aid in progressing the current understanding of the effects of caffeine as a performance enhancer.