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K Balawander et al, 2024. The Multidisciplinary Approach in the Management of Patients with Kidney Stone Disease—A State-of-the-Art Review, Nutrients.

The Multidisciplinary Approach in the Management of Patients with Kidney Stone Disease—A State-of-the-Art Review

K Balawander
June 24, 2024


Kidney stone disease has a multifactorial etiology, and evolving dietary habits necessitate continuous updates on the impact of dietary components on lithogenesis. The relationship between diseases influenced by lifestyle, such as obesity and diabetes, and kidney stone risk underscores the need for comprehensive lifestyle analysis. Effective management of kidney stones requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving collaboration among nutritionists, urologists, nephrologists, and other healthcare professionals to address the complex interactions between diet, lifestyle, and individual susceptibility. Personalized dietary therapy, based on each patient’s unique biochemical and dietary profile, is essential and necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Accurate dietary intake evaluation is best achieved through seven-day, real-time dietary records. Key factors influencing urinary risk include fluid intake, dietary protein, carbohydrates, oxalate, calcium, and sodium chloride. Personalized interventions, such as customized dietary changes based on gut microbiota, may improve stone prevention and recurrence. Current research suggests individualized guidance on alcohol intake and indicates that tea and coffee consumption might protect against urolithiasis. There is potential evidence linking tobacco use and secondhand smoke to increased kidney stone risk. The effects of vitamins and physical activity on kidney stone risk remain unresolved due to mixed evidence. For diseases influenced by lifestyle, conclusive evidence on targeted interventions for nephrolithiasis prevention is lacking, though preliminary research suggests potential benefits. Management strategies emphasize lifestyle modifications to reduce recurrence risks, support rapid recovery, and identify predisposing conditions, highlighting the importance of these changes despite inconclusive data.

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