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Adiposity, diabetes, lifestyle factors and risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Adiposity, diabetes, lifestyle factors and risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

Yuan S, et al.
European Journal of Epidemiology.
July 2, 2022


Adiposity, diabetes, and lifestyle factors are linked to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in observational studies. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to determine whether those associations are causal. Independent genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (with and without adjustment for BMI), type 2 diabetes, smoking, and alcohol, coffee and caffeine consumption at the genome-wide significance level were selected as instrumental variables. Summary-level data for GERD were available from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 71,522 GERD cases and 261,079 controls of European descent from the UK Biobank and QSkin Sun and Health studies. The odds ratio (OR) of GERD was 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40-1.60) for one standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI, 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04-1.10) for one-unit increase in log-transformed OR of type 2 diabetes, and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.31-1.52) for one SD increase in prevalence of smoking initiation. There were suggestive associations with GERD for higher genetically predicted waist circumference (OR per one SD increase, 1.14, 95% CI, 1.02-1.26) and caffeine consumption (OR per 80 mg increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.02-1.15). Genetically predicted waist circumference adjusted for BMI, alcohol or coffee consumption was not associated GERD. This study suggests causal roles of adiposity, diabetes, and smoking, and a possible role of high caffeine consumption in the development of GERD.

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