Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death, with approximately 12 million new stroke events a year and worldwide 101 million people living with the effects of stroke. According to the World Stroke Organisation (2022), the lifetime risk of developing a stroke has increased by 50% over the last 17 years and now 1 in 4 people are estimated to have a stroke in their lifetime30.
Research suggests that moderate coffee consumption may reduce the risk of stroke, and limit the deleterious consequences of suffering a stroke.
A 2021 meta-analysis concluded that coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of stroke, with the dose-response analysis suggesting a U-shape relationship between stroke risk and coffee intake. The strongest association for reducing stroke risk was found for coffee consumption of 3-4 cups per day5. A further 2021 meta-analysis comparing the least-coffee-consuming groups from each study, suggested that coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of ischemic stroke more robustly than that of haemorrhagic stroke. No obvious dose-dependent or U-shaped effect was observed6.
A systematic review of stroke risk in relation to the consumption of different foods concluded that a high consumption of nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, fish and tea, and moderate consumption of coffee and chocolate demonstrated a protective effect against stroke risk31. Furthermore, a 2021 review of bioactives in coffee, in relation to stroke incidence, suggested potential roles for caffeine, as well as trigonelline, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, although additional research is required to confirm these associations22.