Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, which has important repercussions on the health of the individual, mainly because of certain compounds it contains. Coffee consumption exerts significant influences on the entire body, including the gastrointestinal tract, where a central role is played by the gut microbiota. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota is implicated in the occurrence of numerous diseases, and knowledge of the microbiota has proven to be of fundamental importance for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this narrative review, we thoroughly investigated the link between coffee consumption and its effects on the gut microbiota and the ensuing consequences on human health. We have selected the most significant articles published on this very interesting link, with the aim of elucidating the latest evidence about the relationship between coffee consumption, its repercussions on the composition of the gut microbiota, and human health. Based on the various studies carried out in both humans and animal models, it has emerged that coffee consumption is associated with changes in the gut microbiota, although further research is needed to understand more about this link and the repercussions for the whole organism.