Kidney stone disease is increasingly common in the general population, with a high recurrence rate after stone removal. It has been proven that caffeine consumption can reduce the risk of diseases, such as stroke and dementia. However, the effect of caffeine intake on the incidence of kidney stones has not been determined. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the association of caffeine intake with the risk of incident kidney stones.
PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar were searched using terms related to coffee, caffeine and kidney stones to find eligible articles up to December 2021. Articles with clear diagnostic criteria for kidney stone disease and the exact intake dose of caffeine were included. The incidence of kidney stone disease was the main outcome. Summarized risk estimates and 95% CIs for the highest and lowest categories of caffeine intake were calculated using a random effects model.
Seven studies were included in the final meta-analysis, with 9707 cases of kidney stones and a total of 772,290 cohort members. Compared with the lowest category of caffeine intake, the pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.68 ([95% CI 0.61-0.75], I2 = 57%) for the highest category of caffeine intake. Subgroup analyses showed that caffeine intake had an inverse relationship with the incidence of kidney stones in all subgroups.
This study suggests that a higher caffeine intake may be associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones.