A large 2017 study with over 500,000 participants across 10 European countries found a significant association between higher coffee consumption (calculated as more than 3 cups per day with 1 cup equal to 237ml) and lower risk of all-cause mortality1. The strongest associations were identified with digestive disease and mortality, mainly due to a lower risk of dying from liver conditions in both men and women1.
Previously, research suggested that coffee was not associated with an increase in mortality, but data was not available to suggest that coffee was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality2,3. A significant amount of further research has since been undertaken to consider the effect of coffee and caffeine intake on overall mortality4-16. Overall, the data suggests that coffee and caffeine intakes are associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality4-16 and in some cases, research suggests that coffee and caffeine may be associated with reduced mortality from specific conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancers at certain sites4-16.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a review on the Safety of Caffeine concluded that moderate caffeine consumption, of around 400mg caffeine per day (the equivalent of up to 5 cups of coffee), can be enjoyed as part of a healthy balanced diet and an active lifestyle17. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to limit their caffeine intake to 200mg per day17.