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Cardiovascular health

Coffee and CVD risk

A number of meta-analyses have found no association between coffee drinking and an increased risk of CVD, with a potential protective effect observed with a moderate intake of coffee

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Effects of coffee consumption

A number of meta-analyses have reviewed the associations between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) overall, with many concluding that there is no association between coffee drinking and an increased risk of CVD1-4. Some studies have suggested that the association can be illustrated with a ‘U-shaped curve’ with the greatest protection seen at a moderate intake of coffee (3-5 cups per day).The lowest CVD mortality risk is seen at an intake of approximately 3 cups of coffee per day, with a percentage risk reduction of up to 21%14,15.

  •  A 2018 report concluded that habitual coffee consumption is associated with lower risks for cardiovascular death and a variety of adverse CV outcomes, including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke, whilst coffee’s effects on arrhythmias and hypertension were neutral. Habitual intake of 3-4 cups of coffee appeared to be safe and was associated with the most robust beneficial effects1.
  • A 2020 systematic review examined CVD and all-cause mortality in patients who previously had a myocardial infarction. It was concluded that coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality and was not associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Further, the review suggested that a significant non-linear inverse dose response association was found for coffee consumption and all-cause mortality2.
  • A UK Biobank study published in 2022, concluded that those who were categorised as light-to-moderate coffee drinkers (0.5-3 cups per day) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality and CVD mortality when compared to non-coffee drinkers. The authors suggested that coffee consumption up to 3 cups per day was associated with favourable CVD outcomes3.  
  • A further study using UK Biobank data supported these associations. It concluded that coffee intake of 2-3 cups per day showed the lowest risk for CVD and all-cause mortality, whilst cardiovascular mortality risk was lowest at 1 cup per day4.

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