Most of the studies reviewing the association between coffee consumption and stroke have suggested that drinking coffee is associated with a reduced risk of stroke18,19. Of the factors associated with an increased risk of stroke, smoking is considered to be one of the most significant, therefore many studies consider smoking status alongside coffee consumption.
Meta-analyses have considered the associations between coffee consumption and stroke with similar results.
- A 2018 overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that a high consumption of nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, fish and tea, and moderate consumption of coffee and chocolate, demonstrated a protective effect on the incidence of stroke18.
- A 2021 meta-analysis revealed that coffee consumption reduced the risk of overall stroke during follow-up, although no obvious dose-dependent or U-shaped effect was observed19.