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Cardiovascular health

Coffee and hypertension

Research to date suggests that regular intake of coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension, with potential protective effects observed in consumption of 3 cups per day

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Effects of coffee consumption

Although the precise nature of the relationship between coffee and blood pressure is still unclear, overall the research to date suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension. The European Society of Hypertension published a position statement on nutraceuticals and blood pressure, reviewing associations with hypertension. The report suggested that antioxidant-rich beverages (such as tea and coffee) could be considered as being potentially useful choices in supporting healthy blood pressures22.

  • A 2018 systematic review and data analysis, including 243,869 individuals and 58,094 incident cases of hypertension, suggested that coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in a dose–response manner. The hypertension risk was reduced by 3%, 5%, 8% and 10% for 2, 4, 6, and 8 cups per day, respectively, compared with individuals with no coffee intake23.
  • Research published in 2018 reviewed associations between coffee consumption and blood pressure in relation to the incidence of a nucleotide polymorphism in connection to the risk of high blood pressure. The authors concluded that there was a significant interaction effect between coffee consumption and genetic risk of high blood pressure in those who consumed more than 3 cups of coffee per day. This is a new area of research and further investigation is required before conclusions can be drawn24.
  • A 2021 review concluded that a moderate and habitual consumption of coffee (1-3 cups per day) does not adversely affect blood pressure in most people, including those with arterial hypertension. However, the authors did suggest that occasional, rather than habitual, coffee consumption may have hypertensinogenic effects25.

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