Previously discussed epidemiological studies on coffee/caffeine consumption and various heart effects were conducted with healthy participants. Additionally, there have been an increasing number of studies that start with patients having a specific disease, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, or hypertension26-29. Effects in diseased people can be different from effects in healthy people. These observations deserve further exploration, and may explain some of the variation in results mentioned above in the epidemiological studies.
- A 2016 study of 715 hypertensive participants suggested that those consuming ≥3cups of coffee per day showed higher 24-hour systolic blood pressure (BP) than non-coffee drinkers. The association was similar among individuals who were smokers, had excess weight, low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, habitual coffee consumption was associated with uncontrolled BP in this hypertensive older population26.
- A 2015 study evaluated the association between long-term coffee consumption and 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients, suggesting that 1-2 cups of coffee per day versus no consumption had an adverse effect on the ACS incidence. The authors concluded that avoidance of coffee may be beneficial in those with ACS27.
- A 2016 dose response meta-analysis in patients who had suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concluded that drinking coffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality28.
- A 2017 review of studies on patients with high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, or cardiac arrhythmias, concluded that coffee consumption in moderation (3-4 cups per day), is safe and potentially beneficial in these patients29.