The majority of studies in this field found no association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, there is considerable variation between the studies, for both statistically significant inverse and positive associations. Meta-analyses have suggested there is either no association between CHD and coffee intake, or a potential protective effect:
- A 2014 meta-analysis, of 36 studies with 1,279,804 participants and 36,352 cardiovascular disease (CVD) cases, concluded that coffee consumption was associated with a small reduction in CHD risk. The authors suggested an 11% risk reduction at lower coffee intakes (1.5 cups per day) and a 7% risk reduction at higher coffee intakes (5 cups per day)14.
- A 2021 review of coffee consumption in those with diagnosed CVD suggested this group tended to self-regulate their coffee intake and were more likely to drink less caffeinated coffee and to be non-habitual or decaffeinated coffee drinkers than those who did not report symptoms16.
- A 2023 meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested that there was no significant association between coffee consumption and the risk of CHD. However, the authors noted that coffee consumption showed a differential effect by gender, with an increased risk of CHD in men and a potential decreased risk in women17.